Know your listening strategies!
Listening strategies can be classified by how the listener processes the input to be comprehended.
Top-down strategies are listener based
The listener taps into background knowledge of the topic, the situation or context, the type of text, and the language. This background knowledge activates a set of expectations that help the listener to interpret what is heard and anticipate what will come next. Top-down strategies include:
- listening for the main idea
- drawing inferences
Bottom-up strategies are text based
The listener relies on the language in the message, that is, the combination of sounds, words, and grammar that creates meaning. Bottom-up strategies include
- listening for specific details
- recognizing cognates
- recognizing word-order patterns
Here is a good example of informative listening that can be viewed in You Tube.com
Teacher can use this video as listening material and construct questions based on the information!